ELDERLY people in care homes and their carers will be first in line for the coronavirus vaccine jabs as the  UK prepares for a mass rollout of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine after it was approved by British regulator, MHRA.

People aged 65 or over will be next in line as well as anyone aged between 16 to 64 with underlying health conditions which put them at a “higher risk of serious disease and mortality”.

Vaccination against coronavirus will require two jabs spaced 21 days apart and the UK has ordered 40 million doses of the vaccine, enough to vaccinate 20 million people.

Downing Street said there was an “enormous amount of planning and preparation in place” for the distribution of a vaccine.

“The priority will be the most vulnerable groups and we take advice from the independent Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) on which groups should get the vaccine, based on these factors and we keep it under review,” the Prime Minister’s official spokesman said.

“We have secured early access to over 360 million vaccine doses through the agreements that we have with several separate vaccine developers at various stages of the trials.

“We have invested over £140 million into manufacturing any successful vaccine, so there is an enormous amount of planning and preparation in place across government to be able to quickly roll out the vaccine.”

Asked whether Boris Johnson would like everyone to be vaccinated, the spokesman said: “We will take advice from the JCVI on who should get the vaccine.

“At the moment the priority list they have set out is based on preliminary information about the vaccines in development and we keep it under review.

The vaccine rollout is still in its early stages, here’s what  you need to know.

What’s in the pipeline for the UK?

The Government has secured 40 million doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, with 10 million promised for the UK by the end of the year.

Patients need two doses, meaning not enough shots have been secured for the entire UK population.

Yeovil Express: Vaccine doses ordered by UK. Picture: PA graphicsVaccine doses ordered by UK. Picture: PA graphics

How will a vaccine be rolled out?

Work has been going on behind the scenes to ensure that NHS staff are ready to start delivering jabs to the most vulnerable, as well as health and care workers, as a priority.

The NHS Nightingale Hospitals have also been earmarked as sites for mass vaccination clinics – among other uses.

In addition, NHS leaders have said there will be “roving teams” deployed to vaccinate care home residents and workers.

Based on the current information, the vaccines being developed require two doses per patient, with a 21 day gap between doses.

New regulations allowing more healthcare workers to administer flu and potential Covid-19 vaccines have also been introduced by the Government.

Yeovil Express: The NHS Nightingale Hospitals have also been earmarked as sites for mass vaccination clinics. Picture: Stefan Rousseau/PAThe NHS Nightingale Hospitals have also been earmarked as sites for mass vaccination clinics. Picture: Stefan Rousseau/PA

Who is top of the list to get a coronavirus vaccine?

The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) has examined data on who suffers the worst outcomes from coronavirus and who is at highest risk of death.

But who will get a jab could depend on how easily one can be rolled out, with the Pfizer jab needing storage temperatures of minus 70C to minus 80C.

For now, the JCVI’s interim guidance says the order of priority should be:

  1. Older adults in a care home and care home workers.
  2. All those who are 80 years of age and over and health and social care workers
  3. All those who are 75 years of age and over
  4. All those who are 70 years of age and over and clinically extremely vulnerable individuals, excluding pregnant women and those under 18 years of age
  5. All those who are 65 years of age and over
  6. Adults aged 18 to 65 years in an at-risk group
  7. All those aged 60 and over
  8. All those aged 55 and over
  9. All those aged 50 and over

Yeovil Express: Vaccine development timeline. Picture: PA graphicsVaccine development timeline. Picture: PA graphics

Don’t vaccines take a long time to produce?

In the past it has taken years, sometimes decades, to produce a vaccine.

Traditionally, vaccine development includes various processes, including design and development stages followed by clinical trials – which in themselves need approval before they even begin.

But in the trials for a Covid-19 vaccine, things look slightly different. A process which usually takes years has been condensed to months.

While the early design and development stages look similar, the clinical trial phases overlap, instead of taking place sequentially.

And pharmaceutical firms have begun manufacturing before final approval has been granted – taking on the risk that they may be forced to scrap their work.

The new way of working means that regulators around the world can start to look at scientific data earlier than they traditionally would do.

Yeovil Express: Picture: PA WirePicture: PA Wire

Aren’t there other vaccines?

Yes, recent data from the Oxford/AstraZeneca, and Moderna vaccine trials suggests their candidates also have high efficacy.

Oxford data indicates the vaccine has 62% efficacy when one full dose is given followed by another full dose, but when people were given a half dose followed by a full dose at least a month later, its efficacy rose to 90%.

The combined analysis from both dosing regimes resulted in an average efficacy of 70.4%.

Final results from the trials of Moderna’s vaccine suggest it has 94.1% efficacy, and 100% efficacy against severe Covid-19.

Nobody who was vaccinated with the vaccine known as mRNA-1273 developed severe coronavirus.

Which jab is best?

The early contenders all have high efficacy rates, but researchers say it is difficult to make direct comparisons because it is not yet known exactly what everyone is measuring in the trials.

Yeovil Express: How the RNA vaccine would work. Picture: PA graphics.How the RNA vaccine would work. Picture: PA graphics.

How many doses has the UK secured?

The UK has secured access to 100 million doses of the AstraZeneca/Oxford University vaccine, which is almost enough for most of the population.

It also belatedly struck a deals for seven million doses of the jab on offer from Moderna in the US.

The deals cover four different classes: adenoviral vaccines, mRNA vaccines, inactivated whole virus vaccines and protein adjuvant vaccines.

The UK has secured access to:

  • 100 million doses of the Oxford vaccine
  • 60 million doses of the Novavax vaccine
  • Some 30 million doses from Janssen
  • 40 million doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine – the first agreement the firms signed with any government
  • 60 million doses of a vaccine being developed by Valneva
  • 60 million doses of protein adjuvant vaccine from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Sanofi Pasteur
  • Seven million doses of the jab on offer from Moderna in the US

What do they cost?

Pfizer/BioNTech is making its vaccine available not-for-profit.

According to reports, the Moderna vaccine could cost about 38 dollars (£28) per dose and the Pfizer candidate could cost around 20 dollars (£15).

Researchers suggest the Oxford vaccine could be relatively cheap to produce, with some reports indicating it could be about £3 per dose.

AstraZeneca said it will not sell it for a profit, so it can be available to all countries.

However, the details of the deals made by the UK Government have not been made public.

How do we know the vaccines are safe?

Researchers reported their trials do not suggest any significant safety concerns.